March 08, 2017 The Seeker-Friendly, Purpose-Driven Cornucopia of False Doctrine

A Blog by Steven Kozar

“For the time is coming when people will not endure sound teaching, but having itching ears they will accumulate for themselves teachers to suit their own passions, and will turn away from listening to the truth and wander off into myths.”
— 2 Timothy 4:3-4
March 08, 2017
The Seeker-Friendly, Purpose-Driven Cornucopia of False Doctrine

The “attractional” church model is so common that it’s practically the norm; most Christians have assumed that it is the only valid way to “do church” nowadays, or they don’t even know that other legitimate options exist. What is it? Simply put, this model of church starts with the idea that “normal” church is unattractive and can’t bring in new people, so exciting new ideas must be implemented in order to get people in the door. Once people show up for the attractive and entertaining aspects, they’ll eventually hear a gospel message and they’ll “accept Jesus in their hearts” (or something to that effect).
This philosophy makes a number of assertions and assumptions right from the start:
The needs and sensibilities of the unbeliever should determine the strategy of the church.
All of the churches in history (up till now) were doing it wrong: too old-fashioned, too boring, too stiff, too negative, too much doctrine, too ritualistic, etc.
People would be glad to go to church, but it’s just too “churchy.” All we need to do is tone down all the religious stuff, make it fun and “relevant” and people will show up.
A church should focus on meeting people’s needs through “life skills,” “success,” “psychological therapy” and “leadership” training, and it should help it’s members become “purpose-driven” people who can “accomplish their destiny.” A church doesn’t need to preach repentance and the forgiveness of sins anymore; or if it does, it must radically alter the language to appease unbelievers.

Numerical growth is proof of God’s blessing; lack of numerical growth is proof that God is not involved.
In order to build the church, God needs “vision-casting” pastors, and these pastors must then command their followers to do the work required by the “vision” that God gave them.

Robert Schuller (1926-2015) is probably the man most responsible for establishing the Attractional, Seeker-Friendly, Purpose-Driven church model; although a case could be made that Henry Emerson Fosdick (1878-1969) really laid the foundation. Schuller removed many of the “negative” aspects of Christianity like Christ dying on the cross to atone for our sin, hell, God’s anger and God’s wrath; and replaced it with the Positive Thinking philosophy he borrowed directly from his mentor, Norman Vincent Peale (1898-1993). Here’s an article with more detail: Robert Schuller and The Seeker Sensitive Church-The Roots and Fruits of Robert Schuller’s Version of Theological Liberalism by Bob DeWaay
At a very fundamental level, Schuller believed that because modern people didn’t care about their eternal salvation anymore, the church should reach them by appealing to the things that did matter to them; things like their self-esteem and their earthly success and happiness.
“The church must develop a theology for mission. I don’t think it’s done that. I accept John 3:16 as a good one if people have a fear of hell. Maybe they have, but I find a lot of secular people haven’t. At what point can I find a button to push so that I can reach them? I think their desire for self-esteem is that button.”
— Robert Schuller interviewed in Christianity Today, Aug. 10,1984
“I don’t think anything has been done in the name of Christ and under the banner of Christianity that has proven more destructive to human personality and hence counterproductive to the evangelistic enterprise than the unchristian, uncouth strategy of attempting to make people aware of their lost and sinful condition.”
— Robert Schuller “Dr. Schuller Comments,” (letter to the editor), Christianity Today, October 5, 1984, pp. 12-13




A New Reformation? The Christian Research Institute Examines the Theology of Robert Schuller
After Schuller established the Crystal Cathedral and his T.V. Show “The Hour of Power” there were two young pastors who took his ideas and implemented them on an even larger scale: Bill Hybels and Rick Warren. Both of these men learned about growing a church directly from Schuller when they were starting their new churches. Although Schuller was often viewed with skepticism by many Evangelicals (because he had so clearly altered and reduced the Gospel message), both Hybels and Warren have maintained more mainstream reputations as genuine Evangelicals and have escaped much scrutiny. But when examined more carefully, the Mega-Church/Attractional model they brought to full fruition in Willow Creek Church (Hybels) and Saddleback Church (Warren) is not really an orthodox, Biblical Church; it’s a strange hybrid that ends up creating more problems than it solves.
Rick Warren and his wife, Kay, attended Robert Schuller’s “Institute for Church Growth” in 1979 while Warren was in his last year of seminary. In a 2002 interview for Christianity Today Magazine, Kay Warren said this of their visit to the institute: “He (Schuller) had a profound effect on Rick. We were captivated by his positive appeal to non-believers. I never looked back.” (Christianity Today, Nov. 18, 2002) Rick Warren, however, has been strangely silent about the obvious influence that Schuller has had on him.
A big problem with the Mega-Church message is that it’s a watered-down and neutered message. This Christianity is focused on meeting the “felt needs” of people, but the Gospel message is about how Christ gave His life as an atoning sacrifice for our sins. He didn’t die on the cross to give us purpose or make us successful. The true and complete Gospel must be preached so that people can hear the Word of God and can understand the weight of their sin; it’s only from that point that people have the opportunity to repent and have their sins forgiven. In the worse case, “Mega-Church” scenario, the message confuses people into thinking that becoming a Christian is simply “accepting” Jesus so that He can make you more complete, or more satisfied. As an example of this, Rick Warren had a chance to preach a gospel message to a gigantic audience at a TED Talk in 2008, but he choose to preach a feel-good, non-Christian message instead:
“So the good life is not about looking good, feeling good, or having the goods. It’s about being good and doing good. The bottom line is that God gets pleasure watching you be you. Why? He made you. And when you do what you are made to do, He goes, ‘That’s my boy.’ ‘That’s my girl.’ You are using the talent and the ability that God gave you. So my advice to you is look at what is in your hand, your identity, your influence, your income. And say, ‘It’s not about me; it’s about making the world a better place. Thank you.”
— Rick Warren, TED Talk, February, 2006
(Here’s the complete TED Talk given by Rick Warren in February, 2006)

Here’s an example of Andy Stanley freely admitting that he uses “attractional” messages to get people to attend his Mega-Church:
“People are not on a truth quest; they are on a happiness quest. They will continue to attend your church – even if they don’t share your beliefs – as long as they find the content engaging and helpful.”
— Andy Stanley
One of the most striking characteristics of the Attractive, Seeker-Friendly church is the constant emphasis on LEADERSHIP. This is not surprising, since much of the philosophy behind this church model is not based on the Bible-it’s based on business principles. The non-Christian business guru Peter Drucker (1909-2005) has probably had more influence on this idea of church than any single pastor. Read: Peter Drucker’s Mega-Church Legacy. Both Hybels and Warren refer to Drucker as their primary mentor. Here’s a quote from Bill Hybels book “Courageous Leadership” that clearly portrays his near-idolatry of leadership:
“I believe that the great tragedy of the church in our time has been its failure to recognize the importance of the spiritual gift of leadership. It appears to me that only a fraction of pastors worldwide are exercising the spiritual gift of leadership, organizing the church around it, and deploying church members through it. The results, in terms of church growth and worldwide spiritual impact, are staggering.”
— Bill Hybels
The following articles are from various people coming from various theological backgrounds who all agree that the “attractional” “seeker-friendly” “purpose-driven” church model should be reconsidered:
Redefining the Church-The Church Growth Movement’s Unbiblical Definition of the Church by Bob DeWaay
Straight Talk About the Seeker Church Movement by Grace to You Ministries
Schuller Planted, Hybels Watered, Warren (Peter Drucker) Gives The Increase by Orrel Steinkamp
Many Articles about the Unbiblical Nature of the Church Growth Movement by Deception in the Church
The Problems With The Purpose-Driven Definition of a Christ Follower
Why I Left Your Seeker-Friendly Church
The Church Growth Movement: An Analysis of Rick Warren’s “Purpose Driven” Church Growth Strategy by Dennis Castella
Seeker Movement on Critical Issues Commentary Radio (5 different shows)
The Faulty Premises of the Church Growth Movement on Critical Issues Commentary Radio (4 different shows)
Celebrity Pastor is Not a Biblical Church Office by Elliott Nesch
“Church… Business… What’s the Difference?” Confused Willow Creek Leadership Conference by Steven Kozar
Bill Hybels Talks About Popeye (Much) More Than Jesus in the Museum of Idolatry
Bill Hybels: “God Uses a Re-Crafted Schedule to Transform Lives” in the Museum of Idolatry
Resistance is Futile: You Will Be Assimilated Into the Community (Fighting for the Faith with more links)
The Andy Stanley Cornucopia of False Teaching, Fast Talking and Postmodern Ambiguity
Seeker-Sensual Church Growth (Fighting for the Faith Episode with Rosebrough, Kozar and Spreeman)
Purpose Driven Dismantling of Christianity by Marsha West

The following video from our friend Elliot Nesch, is probably the most careful and comprehensive examination of the mega-church model available on the internet. This is three hours of very important material; every Christian should watch this (and then watch it again!):

The following two videos are based on the excellent “White Horse Inn” radio program:

Steven Kozar
Seeker-Friendly, Purpose-Driven, Cornucopia


Getting Booted From Elevation Church
Podcast: Marcia Montenegro Talks …
© Steven Kozar for Pirate Christian Media. Read a little about Steve on “Kozar’s Korner.” Prints of his paintings are available on our Bakesale and on his art website His original paintings are represented in London by The Plus One Gallery.
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March 2018


Shorter Version Of Seeker Sensitive/Purpose Driven Video Above:




John MacArthur Breaks Down The “Charismatic” Movement

John MacArthur has invested a great amount of time in the complete exegesis of the charismatic movement.  Nearly three decades ago, he wrote “Charismatic Chaos” in 1991.  More recently, he hosted a sold out conference called “Strange Fire,” featuring a book with the same title.  The following You Tube videos represent the teachings from this theme that he has been engaged in throughout his ministry:

An Examination of Rick Warren’s Teaching on “Exponential Growth”

Have you ever read or heard from someone who echoed your very words and thoughts?  That is how I felt as I read Brian Jonson’s expose on the error of Rick Warren.  Like Brian, I never finished Warren’s books because they were so theologically unsound.  Like Brian, I too noted Warren’s lack of the mention of the bedrock of our faith – repenting, becoming saved, born again and washed in His blood.  Like Brian, I am fascinated by the fact that the Southern Baptists have never held him accountable.  I could go on and on, but you get the picture.  

In Christ, Pastor Steve



An Examination of Rick Warren’s Teaching on “Exponential Growth”

by Brian Jonson


Rick Warren, pastor of the largest Southern Baptist Church in the world, has become a household name.  Author of the best selling book “Purpose-Driven Life”, he has more exposure both to the unsaved world and church than almost any other Christian author.  Clearly, when he speaks, people listen.  James 3:1 reminds us that teachers are under a different level of scrutiny from God than anyone else.  Tasked with being an evangel of the Good News, a minister must approach his calling with the utmost sobriety and care.  In this brief discussion, I have no intention of calling into question Rick Warren’s motives.  I have no reason to believe that he doesn’t love God, his church and the unsaved.  There is nothing in his life that leads me to believe he is a wolf in sheep’s clothing.  However, the Bible encourages us to examine all things as Bereans and be discerning.  No one is above this Biblical examination.  The ends never justify the means when it comes to Christian ministry.


The video[1] on exponential growth, presented by Warren, is one of the most shocking teachings I have ever seen emerge from a Southern Baptist.  Our denomination is considered conservative and thoroughly Bible-based.  When a minister in the SBC presents philosophies or doctrines that are contrary to scripture, he must be rebuked.  This is true of the pastor of the smallest congregation as well as the largest.  The fact that Saddleback Church is the largest in our movement makes this action so much more urgent.


I am not ashamed to confess that I have never been a fan of The Purpose-Driven Life, Church or associated activities.  I read some of both of these books and, frankly, didn’t need to finish either one.  There are two distinct features present in Warren’s philosophy.  First, he relies on pragmatism and weak doctrine.  Second, he misuses scripture to such a degree that I question whether he had a single course in Biblical hermeneutics.


Pragmatism is the practice of relying on methods or techniques rather than our Sovereign Lord for results.  Pragmatism is the notion that meaning or worth is determined by practical consequences. It is the philosophy that looks to the world’s marketing methodologies or poll results rather than Biblical examples or mandates.  When determining how to “run” a church a Bible-based pastor will ask the question “what most honors God or is clearly revealed in Scripture” while the pragmatist will take a survey in the community.  One of Warren’s more famous actions is in the area of music.  He claims he polled the surrounding community and asked what their musical preference was.  After determining the popular consensus, he “got rid of the organ” and set up a rock band.  There is nothing unbiblical about a “rock” band, but making that determination based on a poll of unsaved people is a questionable method at best.  R.C. Sproul put it well when he said this:


The only seekers we tend to draw with seeker sensitive services are believers seeking a different church. By presenting a God who wants us to look at ourselves, who doesn’t judge and command, who has a wonderful set of insights on how to have a happy, healthy marriage we put God’s imprimatur on narcissism. There’s nothing evangelicals like more than to be told that God loves them just the way they are.

But why aren’t the seekers coming? They like pop music, so we give them pop music. They like stories so we give them dramas. They like anonymity, so we let them have it. They like convenience, so we’ll change their oil while they’re here (this by the way is being done). The problem is that we can do none of these things as well as the world can. Why get up on a Sunday morning and drive somewhere to listen to pop music, when it’s as close as my stereo? Why settle for cheesy scripts and sets when the television does it so much better? Why spend an hour getting an oil change when the pros can do it in ten minutes?[2]


Warren’s weak theology and misuse of scripture is significant and replete throughout his material.  Conspicuously absent in “The Purpose Driven Life” is a clear definition of what it is to be born-again.[3]  There is no question in my mind that this is one of the reasons it remains on the best-seller lists.  Perhaps the following quote is as close as Warren comes to explaining what it is to be redeemed:


“God won’t ask about your religious background or doctrinal views. The only thing that will matter is, did you accept what Jesus did for you and did you learn to love and trust him?” (Warren: 34).


Really?  If that is true, then the Mormons should take great comfort.  After urging his readers to believe God chose them and receive the Holy Spirit for power to “fulfill your life purpose” (Warren 58), he offers a little prayer that will save people. According to Warren, here is how you are saved: “I invite you to bow your head and quietly whisper the prayer that will change your eternity, ‘Jesus, I believe in you and I receive you.” Then he makes this promise, “If you sincerely meant that prayer congratulations! Welcome to the family of God!” (Warren: 59)


Where is the wrath of God against sinners?  Where is the atonement of the blood of Christ?  This is one example of Warren’s weak theology.


Regarding his misuse of scripture, consider the following:


“The Bible says, ‘Self-help is no help at all. Self-sacrifice is the way, my way, to finding yourself, your true self’” (Warren: 19).


The passage he quotes is Matthew 16:25.  The translation (or paraphrase) is from The Message.  The New King James reads “For whoever desires to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake will find it.”


Clearly, this passage is teaching that we are to consider our lives dead (carry our cross) daily in order to follow Christ.  This passage does not teach anything about self-help or self-esteem.  And yet, Warren makes an odd leap to just that when he says “It is about becoming what God created you to be” (Warren: 19).  This is simply untrue.


There are many examples of this type of error in his book.  Warren attended Robert Schuller’s school of church growth.   Schuller’s emphasis on self esteem and pragmatism are very clearly adopted in Warren’s philosophy.  Schuller endorsed “The Purpose Driven Church” in the first few pages.  How Warren could accept the endorsement of a man who has denied sin and completely lost the gospel is beyond me.


I would now like to discuss the “Exponential Thinking” video that I mentioned at the beginning.   This video is intended for pastors who are preparing for their “Purpose-Driven” church program.  In this 20 minute presentation, Rick Warren departs from sound hermeneutics over and over again.  From the first few sentences, I could easily have replaced this Southern Baptist with a modern Charismatic and would not have noticed a difference.  There was almost nothing Baptist about his brief discussion.


Here are some things Warren said in the first few minutes:


“…Most important principal – exponential thinking.”


“If you want God to do something really big in your church, you’re going to have to apply the principals of exponential thinking as taught in the Bible.”


“The Lord clearly put an idea in my mind…God spoke to me that my faith was not big enough…”you must think exponentially” was the thought that God kept putting in my mind.”


Now, my first thought is, “what is exponential thinking?”  He is asserting that it is “the most important principal” and so it is fair to examine this term as he defines it.  Essentially, Warren claims exponential thinking is “adding a zero” to whatever number you have in mind.  Let’s put this in context.  Warren is introducing a church growth strategy and claims this term is the most important principal.  What is the church?  Is the church an organization?  Is it a business?  Is it a non-profit benevolence organization?  Is it a counseling center?  No, the church is the living Body of Christ. It is not an organization; it is an organism.  Christ is the head and He is the responsible for its growth.  Consider Acts 2:46:


46 pSo continuing daily with one accord qin the temple, and rbreaking bread from house to house, they ate their food with gladness and simplicity of heart, 47 praising God and having favor with all the people. And sthe Lord added 8to the church daily those who were being saved.[4]

It seems clear to me that the “most important principal” of church growth is the sovereign oversight of the Lord Jesus Christ.  Warren’s strategy of exponential thinking supplants God’s role as the One Who ultimately grows His church.  No amount of strategies, gimmicks, persuasion or promises will result in true church growth.  Our sovereign Lord is the One responsible for that.

When Warren says “if you want God to do something really big…” then you have to think exponentially.  Also, he says “God spoke to me that my faith wasn’t big enough.”  I have to admit, when I saw him make these statements I instantly thought of the type of false teaching one sees on TBN any given day of the week.  Hebrews 1 says that “God…has in these last days spoken to us through His Son.”  No one hears the audible voice of God.  If Warren meant to say that he felt an impression that his faith wasn’t big enough, then he should be careful to word it that way.  A responsible Pastor shouldn’t be this careless.  Regardless of how it was worded, one must question whether it is a valid statement.  If God is the One who is responsible for growing His church, and no other method is therefore legitimate, then would God chastise Warren for a lack of faith in something he can’t do?  From the very beginning, his premise is faulty.  Nonetheless, he claims God gave Him 10 principles related to exponential growth.  They are:


  1. Exponential growth is possible – Gen. 47:27


With his first point, Warren begins the train wreck of faulty exegesis.


27 So Israel cdwelt in the land of Egypt, in the country of Goshen; and they had possessions there and dgrew and multiplied exceedingly.[5]


Somehow, Warren wants to take this passage out of context and attempts to apply it to a specific church growth program promise.  The Genesis passage simply states a fact; the children of Israel multiplied exceedingly, even exponentially.  However, this is directly tied to the fact that God specifically told Abraham that they would!  There is nothing revelatory here.   There is nothing related to Warren’s “40 Days of Purpose” program here.   Surprisingly, he analogously mentions Starbucks and Krispy Kreme as examples of why we should expect our churches to grow exponentially.  Instead of recognizing that the church is not a business, he compares it to two fast-growth companies.  Anyone with a reasonable amount of discernment should see the invalidity of this illustration.


  1. Exponential growth is the New Testament model – Acts 6:7


7 Then mthe word of God spread, and the number of the disciples multiplied greatly in Jerusalem, and a great many nof the priests were obedient to the faith.[6]

Warren takes a general statement about the Body of Christ and applies it to individual congregations.  Has the church grown exponentially since the book of Acts?  Certainly.  Should we expect that same growth in each congregation?  Nothing says we should.  By God’s Providence, there are Christian churches in nearly every community of America.  Many of these communities are very small.  Some of them are in dying towns.  Is it reasonable for a small, God-honoring church in a small town to experience exponential growth?  I would say no.  Does this mean the pastor’s faith is deficient?  I don’t think so.  Calling exponential growth a New Testament model is only accurate if one refers to the body of Christ as a whole and not individual congregations.


  1. Exponential growth brings honor to God – Is. 26:15


15 Thou hast increased the nation, O LORD, thou hast increased the nation: thou art glorified: thou hadst removed it far unto all the ends of the earth.[7]



This point is almost unnecessary.  No one questions the truth of what is stated here.  The passage in Isaiah is looking toward the prophetic reality that Israel would be increased after their captivity.  God would not forget them and He would restore them and return growth.  God will receive honor for that.  There is no direct application to an individual congregation here.  Worse, he makes the following statement regarding this point:


“We limit God when we think of addition instead of multiplication…God wants us to think in exponential terms”


He does?  Where does God say that in His Word?  The viewer is asked to accept this statement at face value without any support whatsoever.  Perhaps Warren relies on the fact that he has already indicated that he hears the very voice of God, so how can we question him?  The very suggestion that we “limit God” is blasphemous.  It is an ultimate affront to a Sovereign God to suggest that our actions, or inactions, somehow deny Him the ability to accomplish His purposes.  There is very, very bad theology here and I am afraid most viewers won’t even notice it.


  1. Exponential growth captures the attention of the unbelieving world – Ex. 1:12


12 But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew. And they were grieved because of the children of Israel.[8]


Any layman bible student could identify this passage as meaningful only because of its context.  The Egyptian task-masters were laying a heavy burden on the enslaved Hebrews.  Because of the Abrahamic promise of phenomenal growth, the children of Israel continued to magnify in numbers in spite of their maltreatment.  The Egyptians were grieved because they witnessed this fact.  With complete mistreatment of God’s Word, Warren hurls this example into the New Testament age and says this, “Wouldn’t you like people…to be alarmed because your church is growing so fast?”  I don’t understand how Warren can ask this type of question.


  1. Exponential growth is caused by God – Deut. 1:10


10 The LORD your God has multiplied you, jand here you are today, as the stars of heaven in multitude.[9]


This passage is related to Israel, just as was the case in earlier points.  Nonetheless, his statement, “exponential growth is caused by God” is unarguably true.  My question for Warren is this:  If exponential growth is caused by God, then why are you teaching people how to achieve it by using your program?  I truly wonder if Warren is remotely aware of how he contradicts the purpose of his program by acquiescing to God’s sovereignty here.


  1. Exponential Growth is the result of God’s blessing on your life – Is. 51:2


2 Look unto Abraham your father, and unto Sarah that bare you: for I called him alone, and blessed him, and increased him. [10]


Warren seems fixated with God’s promise to Abraham to magnify the Israelites, probably because it fits his thesis so well.  This technique, finding isolated or unrelated scriptures that support a particular thesis or position, is becoming more and more common among Southern Baptists.  When a pastor/teacher approaches the Word of God piecemeal instead of verse by verse and in context, he is in danger of serious interpretative errors.  This is a perfect example.  Additionally, the supposition he is making in point six is faulty.  It is a logical “if/then” statement.  If God blesses your life, then you will experience exponential growth.  He is attributing this growth to God’s blessing.  Then, he applies this to each church congregation equally.  As I said earlier, it is unreasonable to expect every local church to grow as Warren expects them to grow.  There are various demographic and certainly spiritual reasons why certain churches will not grow exponentially.  I’ll go so far as to say the Bible indicates growing apostasy in the last days, not a surge in church growth.  If anything, we might expect to see less growth since the Way is narrow.


  1. Exponential Growth makes God smile.  He rewards it  – no scripture reference


Warren referenced the parable of the talents after presenting this point.  Perhaps the reader has noticed what I noticed – if exponential growth is caused by God (see point 5) and if it brings God honor (point 3), then why is God rewarding man for it?  He is teaching how to cause exponential growth to occur but then says it is all up to God.  After saying it is all up to God he is claiming God will reward us for doing it.  This is contradictory and confusing, at best.


  1. The only barrier to exponential growth is our own unbelief – Mark 6:52


52 For ythey had not understood about the loaves, because their zheart was hardened.[11]

There is nothing in the above verse that relates to whether or not a local church will experience a specific amount of growth.  Does our lack of faith limit God?  No, certainly not.  Does our lack of faith limit our effectiveness or restrict what God may do through us?  That question deserves careful theological consideration.  On at least one occasion our Lord limited the miracles that he did based on a lack of man’s faith (Mark 6:5, 6).  However we deal with this issue, we can be sure it doesn’t apply as Warren supposes.  God is sovereign over His church; He is the one who causes growth.  Warren is making this a responsibility of man.


  1. The secret of exponential growth is believing God for big things – Mat. 9:29; James 5:16


29 Then He touched their eyes, saying, “According to your faith let it be to you.”[12]


16 1Confess your trespasses to one another, and pray for one another, that you may be healed. sThe effective, 2fervent prayer of a righteous man avails much. [13]


Warren’s promise in this point is contingent upon the validity of the concept of “exponential growth.”  As we are discovering, the entire premise is wrong and, therefore, this comment is irrelevant.  The passages he has provided are particularly instructive here.  It is true that our belief in God can/will result in “big things”.  Physical healing as part of Messianic prophecy and having our sins forgiven are essential biblical elements.  Believing God for a local church growth program is something else entirely.


  1. Exponential Growth begins with exponential thinking – Is. 4:2,3


2 In that day shall the branch of the LORD be beautifula and glorious, and the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and comely for them that are escaped of Israel. 3 And it shall come to pass, that he that is left in Zion, and he that remaineth in Jerusalem, shall be called holy, even every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem:[14]


I am unable to find the connection between Warren’s tenth point and this passage from Isaiah.


When I read a statement like this, I think immediately of Norman Vincent Peale or Robert Schuller.  This type of “change reality with your thoughts” is from the charismatic word faith heresy.  There is no excuse for a Southern Baptist minister to be dabbling in these issues.  Unfortunately, the popularity of his books and programs appear to have numbed the doctrinal discernment of millions of evangelicals.  In my view, a statement such as this should set off red alarms immediately.


As if these ten points aren’t enough, Warren then spends a couple of minutes explaining how to utilize exponential thinking.  Here are some quotes:


“How do you think exponentially?  You simply put a zero behind the number.”


He said God said to him, “you are not thinking big enough – add a zero”.  Instead of 3000, think of 30,000.  He recommends we do this in our events.  “God would have to show up…force us to think in ways we’ve never thought before.”


“exponential thinking keeps you from making the mistake of setting up a system that won’t get bigger.”  He said the church is “stuck in a shoe that isn’t able to get any bigger.”  This is due to our faulty thinking.


“Pastors and leaders…you are limiting the growth of your church because you haven’t set a goal that forces you to think out of the box and … do things in new ways.”  “We may be limiting God’s will for our churches.” “Faith stretches us…works in the realm of the impossible…whatsoever is not of faith is sin.”


Please read these quotes again.  These statements are not being made by an Oral Roberts or Benny Hinn; they are uttered by the pastor of the largest church in the Southern Baptist Convention.  Where is the accountability?  Who is rebuking Warren on his faulty doctrine and man-centered theology?  How does this kind of program enjoy such acceptance?  I believe the answer is pragmatism.  Many pastors are unhappy and even depressed with their smaller congregations.  They feel as if preaching the Word expositionally is not interesting enough.  They see a Rick Warren take off his socks and put on a Hawaiian shirt and think the power of God is behind it.  There is a famine of the Word of God in our land.  There is no famine of mega-churches or Rick Warren’s books.  And, I fear that those who are trying to subsist on a diet of “purpose-driven” philosophy will find their ears tickled and spiritual strength gone.




[2] R.C. Sproul at

[3] Having admitted I never finished his book, I nonetheless support this statement based on discussions I’ve had with Christians who have read it and can confirm this point.

p Acts 1:14

q Luke 24:53

r Luke 24:30; Acts 2:42; 20:7; [1 Cor. 10:16]

s Acts 5:14

8 NU omits to the church

[4]The New King James Version. 1996, c1982 . Thomas Nelson: Nashville

c Gen. 47:11

d Gen. 17:6; 26:4; 35:11; 46:3; Ex. 1:7; Deut. 26:5; Acts 7:17

[5]The New King James Version. 1996, c1982 . Thomas Nelson: Nashville

m Acts 12:24; Col. 1:6

n John 12:42

[6]The New King James Version. 1996, c1982 . Thomas Nelson: Nashville

[7]The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 . Logos Research Systems, Inc.: Oak Harbor, WA

[8]The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 . Logos Research Systems, Inc.: Oak Harbor, WA

j Gen. 15:5; 22:17; Ex. 32:13; Deut. 7:7; 10:22; 26:5; 28:62

[9]The New King James Version. 1996, c1982 . Thomas Nelson: Nashville

[10]The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 . Logos Research Systems, Inc.: Oak Harbor, WA

y Matt. 16:9–11; Mark 8:17, 18

z Is. 63:17; Mark 3:5; 16:14

[11]The New King James Version. 1996, c1982 . Thomas Nelson: Nashville

[12]The New King James Version. 1996, c1982 . Thomas Nelson: Nashville

1 NU Therefore confess your sins

s Num. 11:2

2 supplication

[13]The New King James Version. 1996, c1982 . Thomas Nelson: Nashville

a beautiful…: Heb. beauty and glory

[14] The Holy Bible : King James Version. 1995 . Logos Research Systems, Inc.: Oak Harbor, WA



Quotable Quotations ~ Norman Vincent Peale And The Apostle Paul

Norman Vincent Peale is known best for his book “The Power Of Positive Thinking.”  It is too bad he could not have given an autographed copy to Job.  Norman Vincent Peale was the initiator of an unbiblical and man centered psycobabble religion.  Peale mentored Robert Schuller and Robert Schuller taught Rick Warren.  They are all best known for their deviations from solid Biblical theology.  Each of these men built on the man made philosophies of their respective predecessor.

The Apostle Paul was the giant of the New Testament, responsible for writing thirteen epistles, converting a jailor, planting churches all around the Mediterranean Sea, and turning the world upside down.  He is indeed the quintessential Apostle.

As we compare these men who are polar opposites, we find that:  “Norman Vincent Peale was very appalling, whereas the Apostle Paul was appealing.”  Enough said.

Proverbs 17:22a King James Version (KJV)
A merry heart doeth good like a medicine:

Yours In Christ, Pastor Steve   <><

Gay / Christian / Conservative

The above headline is an oxymoron to the discerning Christian eye.  Yet to the Millennial “progressive” view of Christianity, it is the new normal.  The subject of this article, Guy Benson, places his faith in political correctness rather than in the holy scriptures.  This is a lose, lose situation.  Enjoy the following article from the American Renewal Project, who addresses the abomination of sodomy for what it is.  In His Service, Pastor Steve  <><

Gay, Christian, Conservative

David Lane via
8:07 AM (7 hours ago)

Guy Benson – Fox News contributor, political editor of, and conservative talk radio personality – was featured in a video last week, in which he said: “I’m a Christian, a patriotic American, and a free-market, shrink-the-government conservative – who also happens to be gay. What I mean by that is my values define me, while my sexual orientation sometimes feels more like … well, a footnote.”

Guy Benson is a striking example of how to make a ‘footnote’ into a headline.

By putting himself forward as a ‘Christian’, Mr. Benson transforms the dialogue from Democrat vs. Republican, liberal vs. conservative, to Secularism vs. Christianity. The ordained eye will discern quickly that Mr. Benson is rooting his faith in his political beliefs, rather than in the Biblical standard established in Scripture. The Bible ordains traditional marriage, from beginning to end; the family is the center and the foundation of community. Why? God ordained it as the method to prevent the disintegration of marriage, the collapse of the family, and the breakdown of social order.

Mr. Benson may be unaware, but his formula will lead to unrest, confusion, and ultimately, revolution, chaos, and cultural death.

To paraphrase Dennis Prager, “You hold the standard in the macro (homosexuality is sin) and you love in the micro (love gay individuals).” Yet, Guy Benson reverses this order, allowing a flawed message and messenger to seek to establish a flawed standard. In 4,000 years of Judeo-Christian religion, homosexuality has been condemned as sin. Two examples from the Old and New Testaments:

* Leviticus 18:22, “Do not practice homosexuality, having sex with another man as with a woman. It is a detestable sin.”
* 1 Corinthians 6:9-11, “Don’t you realize that those who do wrong will not inherit the Kingdom of God? Don’t fool yourselves. Those who indulge in sexual sin, or who worship idols, or commit adultery, or are male prostitutes, or practice homosexuality, or are thieves, or greedy people, or drunkards, or are abusive, or cheat people – none of these will inherit the Kingdom of God. Some of you were once like that. But you were cleansed; you were made holy; you were made right with God by calling on the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God.”

Whereas the Human Rights Commission may deem the Scriptures referenced above as ‘hate speech’, God’s intent is on righteousness (“For Scripture says, ‘You must be holy because I am holy.'” [1 Peter 1:16]) and the permanence of the family.

Unfortunately, Christians squandered the inheritance bequeathed to them by America’s Founders. The antidote to the current trend of dislodging America from her Judeo-Christian moorings is fortitude and valor in the public square. As the Spirit has faded in America’s churches, the political reality is that her parishioners are disproportionately fearful to engage the public arena. Like King Lear, the church in America has progressively divested herself of her royal garb, and with that, of her authority in the civil sphere.[2]

Joseph Boot explains how such events unfold: “Once unhooked from biblical law, man’s legislation soon enshrines murder and perversity as legal rights (as witness abortion and sodomy). What must be clearly understood is that when changes are made to the penalties for crimes, we in fact witness a change in social values. Furthermore, foundational changes in the law order in terms of which acts are deemed criminal, indicate a change of ‘gods’, and therefore a new source of sovereignty.”[3]

Pastor Rob McCoy, Thousand Oaks City Councilman and Mayor Pro Tem, reacted to Mr. Benson’s video by stating: ‘What Guy Benson calls ‘progress’ is in fact using his sexual orientation to determine his political values as he invokes his theological beliefs that orthodox Christianity and homosexuality can be mutually inclusive in a human heart. He declares his sexuality determines his political position of liberalism.

“We conservative prudes of Evangelicalism need to just shut up and deal with the Millennial ‘progressive’ view of Scripture. Count me out if ‘so-called’ conservatives want to embrace this liberal progressive view.”

As Christians, let’s pray that Mr. Benson sees the Light – the sole requirement of the Gospel is belief. He also was created in the image of God, and one of the greatest truths in Scripture is that we are unconditionally loved by God. “A wise man will seek to profit from good advice, no matter who may proffer it or how unkindly it may be given – shall I refuse an important letter because I dislike the appearance or manners of the postman?”[4]

The Good News is that Gideons, such as Rob McCoy, and Rahabs are beginning to stand.

David Lane
American Renewal Project

[1] Joseph Boot, The Mission of God: A Manifesto of Hope for Society Manifesto-Hope- Society/dp/0994727909
[2] Dr. Peter J. Leithart, A Son to Me, An Exposition of 1 & 2 Samuel
[3] The Mission of God: A Manifesto of Hope for Society
[4] A.W. Pink, The Life of David



Teaching Stones

Days of Praise

Teaching Stones
by Henry M. Morris, Ph.D. | Jan. 18, 2018

“Woe unto him that saith to the wood, Awake; to the dumb stone, Arise, it shall teach! Behold, it is laid over with gold and silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst of it.” (Habakkuk 2:19)
How foolish are those who worship idols—objects of wood and stone with no life in them, not even when they are adorned in silver and gold. Can inanimate objects come to life and even become teachers? A child knows better.
But not college professors! All over the land, these proud purveyors of “science falsely so called” are indoctrinating young minds with the absurd belief that inorganic substances can somehow first become simple living substances and then eventually organize themselves all the way up to being people. They would not, of course, suggest that sticks and stones could suddenly become human (neither did the ancient idolaters, for that matter). They just believe that time—lots of it—can magically develop people out of much simpler substances than even these ancient philosophers ever imagined. “In the beginning, hydrogen” is their arrogant notion.
But God will not be mocked in this way forever. Life can only come from life—ultimately from the living God! The wooden idol of the pagan is every bit as scientific as the evolutionary models of the modern intellectual; neither one can create life. “Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men’s hands. They have mouths, but they speak not: eyes have they, but they see not: . . . They that make them are like unto them; so is every one that trusteth in them” (Psalm 115:4-5, 8).
Only God can create life, and He can even cause stones to teach. “Speak to the earth, and it shall teach thee: . . . Who knoweth not in all these that the hand of the LORD hath wrought this?” (Job 12:8-9). HMM


The foolishness of evolution and idol worship knows no bounds.  It takes a stubborn, strong willed, Antichrist spirit to believe that no one plus nothing, and a whole lot of time made everything.  Likewise, the folly of idol worship is also off the charts.  Since the fall in the garden, man has taken to worshipping the creation rather than the Creator.  I cannot help but remember the rebellious Israelites in the wilderness, when Moses climbed Mount Horeb.

Exodus 32:24  King James Version (KJV)
24 And I said unto them, Whosoever hath any gold, let them break it off. So they gave it me: then I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf.

We would laugh at the last five highlighted words from this scriptural text if they were not so sad.

In His Service, Pastor Steve  <><

The Cult Of The Jehovah’s Witnesses

Facts Jehovah’s Witnesses Won’t Tell You When Calling at Your Door

Facts Jehovah’s Witnesses Won’t Tell You When Calling at Your Door
By: The John Ankerberg Show

The Watchtower Bible & Tract Society headquartered in Brooklyn, New York, USA, was founded over 100 years ago by Charles Taze Russell, who had no theological training, but adopted the title, “Pastor.”  His ideas were strange right from the beginning.
Early Watchtower magazines (3/15/1913 & 1/15/1912) reveal that he believed a person’s desire to worship God was due to the shape of their brain. He believed that if a dog’s head were shaped like a man’s, the dog would think like a man!
He offered health advice too, believing appendicitis and typhoid fever were caused by “biting worms in the colon”.
He sold “miracle wheat” at greatly inflated prices. Despite all this, his followers then (and now) believed that he was God’s “faithful and discreet slave” referred to in Matthew 24:45. After his death, his legacy, the Watch Tower organization became this sole channel for God in the eyes of its followers.
THAT Jesus Christ (who is Michael the Archangel in their doctrine) is mediator for only a small, elite, group within their ranks called the “anointed remnant”. Others must come to this group who control the organization and earn their salvation by absolute obedience to it.
THAT all religions except theirs are of Satan, and your Pastor or Priest is under the Devil’s control.
THAT the Watchtower Society is the only source of truth on earth today, and all churches teach error and will be destroyed at Armageddon.
THAT the cross is a pagan symbol of sex worship, and that all buildings or persons display­ing the cross are likewise pagan. Jehovah’s Witnesses deny that Jesus died on the cross. However, “new light” in the Watchtower Magazine has admitted they are not certain about the cross, but will continue to deny it anyway.
THAT no one goes to heaven but 144,000 Jehovah’s Witnesses, and your soul will be destroyed if you refuse to join their organization.
THAT the Christ child was only an “IT”, not a “HE”. See the New World Translation, Luke 2:16,17.
THAT Jesus was not the Christ (or Messiah) until age 30, even though their own bible says in Luke 2:11, “because there was born to you today a Savior, who is Christ the Lord.”
THAT after Jesus was buried in the tomb, Jehovah dissolved his body into gasses and it disappeared forever.
THAT Jesus rose invisibly in three days, so Jehovah had to “materialize” a fake body for him complete with fake nail prints so His disciples would believe it was really Jesus risen.
THAT Armageddon and Christ’s second coming were foretold to happen in 1874, 1914, 1925 and 1975 by this “non-prophet” organization.
THAT when Christ failed to show up in 1914 The Society claimed in later years that He had come—invisibly—of course, and all Jehovah’s Witnesses believe this today.
THAT Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob etc., were to be back on earth as perfect humans in 1925. The Society built a palatial home for them BUT, when the patriarchs failed to show up, the President of the Society moved in.
THAT their light gets “brighter and brighter”, allowing for the many changes and “about faces” on their doctrines. Yesterday’s error is today’s “truth”. Often the “light” bounces back and forth from old to new views and back again! Does real light return to darkness?
THAT the Watchtower Society and its followers are all prophets of God today and the Governing Body is directed by angels from God.
THAT salvation for Society members consists of doing the good works of placing Watch­tower books and magazines and winning converts.
THAT soon Jehovah God will become a GRANDFATHER and Jesus will be promoted to “EVERLASTING FATHER”!
THAT Jehovah God is not omnipresent, but still Almighty. Think! How can this be?
They have NOT BEEN TOLD —By the leadership of the Society
THAT when they translated their New World Translation of the Bible they deliberately altered almost every scripture on the Deity of Christ, to make him only a creature.
THAT the Society used a translation by a SPIRIT MEDIUM, Johannes Greber, to support their rendering of John 1:1 with full knowledge that his sources were DEMONIC. Greber was exposed in the Feb. 15/56 W.T. However in 1961 they released a translation based on his occult one then denied they knew what they were doing on page 31 of the Apr. 1, 1983 Watchtower!
THAT none of their “translating committee” knew Biblical Greek or Hebrew. No scholars at all.
THAT Fred Franz, who for many years headed the Society, perjured himself under oath in Scotland in a court trial, by saying he could read Hebrew, and then failing a simple Hebrew test.
THAT the following encyclopedias consider the name “JEHOVAH” to be FALSE Merits Student Enc.; Encyclopedia Americana; The Jewish Encyclopedia; Encyclopedia Interna­tional, The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible; The New Catholic Encyclopedia; The Univer­sal Jewish Encyclopedia, etc.
Jehovah’s Witness’s own “Aid” book admits on pages 884 & 885 that “Jehovah” was first recorded by a Catholic monk about 700 years ago!
THAT the date 1874 was taught for Christ’s invisible presence by the Society until l929. (See their book, “Prophecy”, p. 65. sold until 1941. Also WT. Jan 1, 1924, p. 5.)
THAT top executives of the Society have admitted under oath that they forced their mem­bers to accept false prophecies or face disfellowshipping and be found worthy of death.
THAT true salvation is FREE (Ephesians 2: 8 & 9), and consists of receiving Christ as your Savior. (John 1:12 , John 6: 28, 29).
In Summary
We find the Watchtower Society practicing their belief that it is proper to deceive people. But they say this really isn’t lying. Why? Because the Society has a different definition of lying than most of us. In their book “AID TO BIBLE UNDERSTANDING” under the word “LIE” we read:
Lying generally involves saying something false to a person who is ENTITLED to know the truth….
While malicious lying is definitely condemned in the Bible, this does not mean that a person is under obligation to divulge truthful information to people who are not entitled to it.  Of course it is the Watchtower leaders that decide WHO deserves to know the truth.

This article was written by by Lorri MacGregor, ©June 1999 for The John Ankerberg Show.


John MacArthur | When Jehovah Witnesses Come A Knockin


Jehovah’s Witnesses, JW’s, Russellism
Founder: Charles Taze Russell

Jehovah’s Witnesses trace their origins to the nineteenth century Adventist movement in America . That movement began with William Miller, a Baptist lay preacher who, in the year 1816, began proclaiming that Christ would return in 1843. His predictions of the Second Coming or Second Advent captured the imagination of thousands in Baptist and other mainline churches. Perhaps as many as 50,000 followers put their trust in Miller’s chronological calculations and prepared to welcome the Lord, while, as the appointed time approached, others watched nervously from a distance. Recalculations moved the promised second advent from March, 1843 to March, 1844, and then to October of that year. Alas, that date too passed uneventfully.
After the “Disappointment of 1844” Miller’s following fell apart, with most of those who had looked to him returning to their respective churches before his death in 1849. But other disappointed followers kept the movement alive, although in fragmented form. Their activities eventually led to the formation of several sects under the broad heading of “Adventism” including the Advent Christian Church, the Life and Advent Union, the Seventh-Day Adventists, and various Second Adventist groups.
An interesting side-note:
The Branch Davidians who died at Waco, Texas, under the leadership of David Koresh also trace their roots to the same Millerite source through a different line of descent. In 1935 the Seventh Day Adventist Church expelled a Bulgarian immigrant named Victor Houteff, who had begun teaching his own views on certain passages on the book of Revelation. Houteff set up shop on the property at Waco . After first referring to his tiny new sect as The Shepherd’s Rod, Houteff and his people in 1942 incorporated and renamed themselves Davidian Seventh Day Adventists. Houteff died in 1955, and in 1961 his wife Florence officially disbanded the sect, but a few followers under the leadership of west Texas businessman Benjamin Roden took over the real estate. Roden died in 1978, leaving behind his wife Lois and his son George to lead the group. Then, in 1987, David Koresh took over the leadership position, and the tragedy that followed is public knowledge.
Jehovah’s Witnesses, likewise, trace their roots back to the Adventists. But they do not often admit this to outsiders; nor do many Witnesses know the details themselves. Jehovah’s Witnesses are accustomed to defending themselves against the charge that they are a new religious cult. They will often respond that theirs is the most ancient religious group, older than Catholic and Protestant churches. In fact, they assert that “Jehovah’s witnesses have a history almost 6,000 years long, beginning while the first man, Adam, was still alive,” that Adam’s son Abel was “the first of an unbroken line of Witnesses,” and that “Jesus’ disciples were all Jehovah’s witnesses [sic] too.” (Jehovah’s Witnesses in the Divine Purpose, pp. 8-9)
An outsider listening to such claims quickly realizes, of course, that the sect has simply appropriated unto itself all the characters named in the Bible as faithful witnesses of God. By such extrapolation the denomination is able to stretch its history back to the beginnings of the human family, at least in the eyes of adherents who are willing to accept such arguments. But outside observers generally dismiss this sort of rhetoric and instead reckon the Witnesses as dating back only to Charles Taze Russell, who was born on February 16, 1852, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Originally raised a Presbyterian, Russell was 16 years old and a member of the Congregational church in the year 1868, when he found himself losing faith. He had begun to doubt not only church creeds and doctrines, but also God and the Bible itself. At this critical juncture a chance encounter restored his faith and placed him under the influence of Second Adventist preacher Jonas Wendell.
For some years after that Russell continued to study Scripture with and under the influence of various Adventist laymen and clergy, notably Advent Christian Church minister George Stetson and the Bible Examiner’s publisher George Storrs. He met locally on a regular basis with a small circle of friends to discuss the Bible, and this informal study group came to regard him as their leader or pastor.
In January, 1876, when he was 23 years old, Russell received a copy of The Herald of the Morning, an Adventist magazine published by Nelson H. Barbour of Rochester , New York . One of the distinguishing features of Barbour’s group at that time was their belief that Christ returned invisibly in 1874, and this concept presented in The Herald captured Russell’s attention. It meant that this Adventist splinter group had not remained defeated, as others had, when Christ failed to appear in 1874 as Adventist leaders had predicted; somehow this small group had managed to hold onto the date by affirming that the Lord had indeed returned at the appointed time, only invisibly.
Was this mere wishful thinking, coupled with a stubborn refusal to admit the error of failed chronological calculations? Barbour had some arguments to offer in support of his assertions. In particular, he came up with a basis for reinterpreting the Second Coming as an invisible event:
In Benjamin Wilson’s Emphatic Diaglott translation of the New Testament the word rendered ‘coming’ in the King James Version at Matthew 24:27, 37, 39 is translated ‘presence’ instead. This served as the basis for Barbour’s group to advocate, in addition to their time calculations, an invisible presence of Christ.
Although the idea appealed to young Charles Taze Russell, the reading public apparently refused to ‘buy’ the story of an invisible Second Coming, with the result that N. H. Barbour’s publication The Herald of the Morning was failing financially. In the summer of 1876 wealthy Russell paid Barbour’s way to Philadelphia and met with him to discuss both beliefs and finances. The upshot was that Russell became the magazine’s financial backer and was added to the masthead as an assistant editor. He contributed articles for publication as well as monetary gifts, and Russell’s small study group similarly became affiliated with Barbour’s.
Russell and Barbour believed and taught that Christ’s invisible return in 1874 would be followed soon afterward, in the spring of 1878 to be exact, by the Rapture, the bodily snatching away of believers to heaven. When this expected Rapture failed to occur on time in 1878, The Herald’s editor, Mr. Barbour, came up with “new light” on this and other doctrines. Russell, however, rejected some of the new ideas and persuaded other members to oppose them. Finally, Russell quit the staff of the Adventist magazine and started his own. He called it Zion’s Watch Tower and Herald of Christ’s Presence and published its first issue with the date July, 1879. In the beginning it had the same mailing list as The Herald of the Morning and considerable space was devoted to refuting the latter on points of disagreement, Russell having taken with him a copy of that magazine’s mailing list when he resigned as assistant editor.
At this point Charles Russell no longer wanted to consider himself an Adventist, nor a Millerite. But, he continued to view Miller and Barbour as instruments chosen by God to lead His people in the past. The formation of a distinct denomination around Russell was a gradual development. His immediate break was, not with Adventism, but with the person and policies of N. H. Barbour.
Nor were barriers immediately erected with respect to Protestantism in general. New readers obtaining subscriptions to Zion’s Watch Tower were often church members who saw the magazine as a para-church ministry, not as an anti-church alternative. Russell traveled about speaking from the pulpits of Protestant churches as well as to gatherings of his own followers. In 1879, the year of his marriage to Maria Frances Ackley and also the year he began publishing Zion’s Watch Tower, Russell organized some thirty study groups or congregations scattered from Ohio to the New England coast. Each local “class” or ecclesia came to recognize him as “Pastor,” although geography and Russell’s writing and publishing activities prevented more than an occasional pastoral visit in person.
Inevitably, Russell’s increasingly divergent teachings forced his followers to separate from other church bodies and to create a denomination of their own. Beginning, as he did, in a small branch of Adventism that went to the extreme of setting specific dates for the return of Christ and the Rapture, Russell went farther out on a limb in 1882 by openly rejecting the doctrine of the Trinity. His earlier mentor Nelson H. Barbour was a Trinitarian, as was The Herald of the Morning’s other assistant editor John H. Paton who joined Russell in leaving Barbour to start Zion’s Watch Tower . The writings of Barbour and Paton that Russell had helped publish or distribute were Trinitarian in their theology. And the Watch Tower itself was at first vague and noncommittal on the subject. It was only after Paton broke with him in 1882, and ceased to be listed on the masthead, that Russell began writing against the doctrine of the Trinity.
By the time of his death , Charles Taze Russell had traveled more than a million miles and preached more than 30,000 sermons. He had authored works totaling some 50,000 printed pages, and nearly 20,000,000 copies of his books and booklets had been sold.
Followers had been taught that Russell himself was the “faithful and wise servant” of Matthew 24:45 and “the Laodicean Messenger,” God’s seventh and final spokesman to the Christian church. But he lived to see the failure of various dates he had predicted for the Rapture, and finally died on October 31, 1916 , more than two years after the world was supposed to have ended, according to his calculations, in early October, 1914..
His disciples, however, saw the World War then raging as reason to believe “the end” was still imminent. They buried Russell beneath a headstone identifying him as “the Laodicean Messenger,” and erected next to his grave a massive stone pyramid emblazoned with the cross and crown symbol he was fond of and the name “Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society.” (The pyramid still stands off Cemetery Lane in Ross, a northern Pittsburgh suburb, where it reportedly serves as the focal point of an eerie scene each Halloween as modern-day Russellites encircle it, holding hands, in a vigil commemorating the day of his death.)
According to instructions Russell left behind, his successor to the presidency would share power with an editorial committee and with the Watch Tower corporation’s board of directors, whom Russell had appointed “for life.” But vice president Joseph Franklin (“Judge”) Rutherford soon set about concentrating all organizational authority in his own hands. A skilled lawyer who had served as Russell’s chief legal advisor, he combined legal prowess with what opponents undoubtedly saw as a Machiavellian approach to internal corporate politics. Thus he used a loophole in their appointment to unseat the majority of the Watch Tower directors without calling a membership vote. And he even had a subordinate summon the police into the Society’s Brooklyn headquarters offices to break up their board meeting and evict them from the premises. (Faith on the March by A. H. Macmillan, pp. 78-80)
After securing the headquarters complex and the sect’s corporate entities, Rutherford turned his attention to the rest of the organization. By gradually replacing locally elected elders with his own appointees, he managed to transform a loose collection of semi-autonomous democratically-run congregations into a tight-knit organizational machine run from his office. Some local congregations broke away, forming such Russellite splinter groups as the Chicago Bible Students, the Dawn Bible Students, and the Laymen’s Home Missionary Movement, all of which continue to this day. But most Bible Students remained under his control, and Rutherford renamed them “Jehovah’s Witnesses” in 1931, to distinguish them from these other groups.
Meanwhile, he shifted the sect’s emphasis from the individual “character development” Russell had stressed to vigorous public witnessing work, distributing the Society’s literature from house to house. By 1927 this door-to-door literature distribution had become an essential activity required of all members. The literature consisted primarily of Rutherford’s unremitting series of attacks against government, against Prohibition, against “big business,” and against the Roman Catholic Church. He also forged a huge radio network and took to the air waves, exploiting populist and anti-Catholic sentiment to draw thousands of additional converts. His vitriolic attacks, blaring from portable phonographs carried to people’s doors and from the loudspeakers of sound cars parked across from churches, also drew down upon the Witnesses mob violence and government persecution in many parts of the world.
Like Russell, Rutherford tried his hand at prophecy and predicted that biblical patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob would be resurrected in 1925 to rule as princes over the earth. (Millions Now Living Will Never Die, 1920, pp. 89-90) They failed to show up, of course, and Rutherford quit predicting dates. In fact, referring to that prophetic failure he later admitted, “I made an ass of myself.” (The Watchtower, October 1, 1984, p. 24)
Vice President Nathan Homer Knorr inherited the presidency upon Rutherford’s death in 1942 but left doctrinal matters largely in the hands of Frederick W. Franz, who joined the sect under Russell and had been serving at Brooklyn headquarters since 1920. Lacking the personal magnetism and charisma of Russell and Rutherford, Knorr focused followers’ devotion on the ‘Mother’ organization rather than on himself.
After decades of publishing books and booklets authored by its presidents Russell and Rutherford, the Watchtower Society began producing literature that was written anonymously. But it was not impersonal, since the organization itself was virtually personified, and readers were directed to “show our respect for Jehovah’s organization, for she is our mother and the beloved wife of our heavenly Father, Jehovah God.” (The Watchtower, May 1, 1957, p. 285)
A superb administrator, Knorr shifted the sect’s focus from dynamic leadership to dynamic membership. He initiated training programs to transform members into effective recruiters. Instead of carrying a portable phonograph from house to house, playing recordings of “Judge” Rutherford’s lectures at people’s doorsteps, the average Jehovah’s Witness began receiving instruction on how to speak persuasively. Men, women, and children learned to give sermons at the doors on a variety of subjects.
Meanwhile Fred Franz worked behind the scenes to restore faith in the sect’s chronological calculations, a subject largely ignored following Rutherford’s prophetic failure in 1925. The revised chronology established Christ’s invisible return as having taken place in 1914 rather than 1874, and, during the 1960’s, the Society’s publications began pointing to the year 1975 as the likely time for Armageddon and the end of the world.
The prevailing belief among Jehovah’s Witnesses today is that the Society never predicted “the end” for 1975, but that some over-zealous members mistakenly read this into the message. However, the official prediction is well documented. See, for example, the article titled “Why Are You Looking Forward to 1975?” in The Watchtower of August 15, 1968, pp. 494-501. Allowing for a small margin of error, it concludes a lengthy discussion with this thought: “Are we to assume from this study that the battle of Armageddon will be all over by the autumn of 1975, and the long-looked-for thousand-year reign of Christ will begin by then? Possibly, but we wait to see how closely the seventh thousand-year period of man’s existence coincides with the sabbathlike thousand-year reign of Christ. . . . It may involve only a difference of weeks or months, not years.” (p. 499) For several other quotes pointing specifically to 1975, see the book Index of Watchtower Errors (by David A. Reed, Baker Book House, 1990) pages 106-110.
Knorr’s training programs for proselytizing, plus Franz’ apocalyptic projections for 1975, combined to produce rapid growth in membership, the annual rate of increase peaking at 13.5 percent in 1974. All of this pushed meeting attendance at JW Kingdom Halls from around 100,000 in 1941 to just under 5 million in 1975. Growth since then has been slower, but fairly steady in most years, with the result that nearly 11.5 million gathered at Kingdom Halls in the spring of 1992 for the Witnesses’ annual communion or “Memorial” service commemorating Christ’s death with unleavened bread and red wine.
During the 1970’s changes took place at Watchtower headquarters in regard to presidential power. First it became accepted in theory that the Christian Church (which Jehovah’s Witnesses see their organization as encompassing) should not be under one-man rule, but rather should be governed by a body similar to the twelve apostles. The 7-member board of directors of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania had previously been portrayed as fulfilling this role, but in 1971 an expanded Governing Body was created with a total of eleven members, including the seven Directors. The aim was to demonstrate that the leadership derived authority from an apostolic source, rather than from Pennsylvania corporate law.
This new Governing Body was displayed as further evidence of the sect’s being the one true church, but in actuality Nathan Knorr continued to rule Jehovah’s Witnesses much as Russell and Rutherford had done before him. That is, until 1975, when Governing Body members began insisting on exercising the powers granted to them in theory but that had never really been theirs in practice. Over the objections of Fred Franz the Body that he had been instrumental in creating actually began governing, so that when Nathan Knorr passed away in 1977 Franz inherited an emasculated presidency.
Franz also inherited an organization troubled by discontent over the obvious failure of his prophecies of the world’s end in the autumn of 1975. Even at Brooklyn headquarters little groups meeting privately for Bible study were beginning to question not only the 1914-based chronology that produced the 1975 deadline, but also the related teaching that the “heavenly calling” of believers ended in 1935, with new converts after that date consigned to an earthly paradise for their eternal reward.
The hitherto fast-growing sect actually began losing members for the first time in decades, as people who had expected Armageddon in 1975 became disillusioned. When membership loss grew into the hundreds of thousands-a fact masked by new conversions in figures released by the Society, but reported in an investigative article in the Los Angeles Times of January 30, 1982 (pp. 4-5)-president Franz and the conservative majority on the Governing Body took action. In the spring of 1980 they initiated a crack-down on dissidents, breaking up the independent Bible study groups at headquarters, and forming “judicial committees” to have those seen as ringleaders put on trial for “disloyalty” and “apostasy.”
By the time this purge culminated in the forced resignation and subsequent excommunication of the president’s nephew and fellow Governing Body member Raymond V. Franz (a development Time magazine found worthy of a full-page article, Feb. 22, 1982, p. 66) a siege mentality took hold on the world-wide organization. Even Witnesses who left quietly and voluntarily for personal reasons were denounced as disloyal and were ordered shunned, former friends forbidden to say as much as “a simple ‘Hello'” to them.
Thus, although Frederick W. Franz served as the sect’s chief theologian for some fifty years-from the start of Knorr’s presidency in 1942 until his own death on December 22, 1992-the fact that he outlived his failed prophecies by more than fifteen years required him to impose a mini-Inquisition on the membership in order to keep his doctrinal and chronological framework in force for the remainder of his lifetime.
Milton G. Henschel’s selection as fifth Watchtower president on December 30, 1992 , is truly significant for the 13 million now attending Kingdom Halls. At first glance the choice of a staunch conservative for the post may seem to guarantee a continuation of the status quo, with little change in the offing for Jehovah’s Witnesses. But a closer look reveals this appointment as the conservative old guard’s last stand-an indication that radical change in the sect’s leadership and doctrines is imminent.
At age 72 Henschel became the second-youngest member of the Governing Body, and he was selected to lead by men several years older than he is. (Both the average age and the median age at the time of Henschel’s appointment calculated out to about 82 years.) With members in their eighties known to sleep through meetings and to vote on matters upon being awakened (See eyewitness Raymond Franz’s account in his book Crisis of Conscience, p. 40.) the Body is losing its ability to provide purposeful and decisive leadership. Henschel was no doubt chosen in part due to his having vitality others lacked. Obviously, these aging leaders will not be able to hold the reigns of power much longer. The men who shared in building the Watchtower into what it is today will soon leave it behind for others to run.
In the decades following the death of founder Charles Taze Russell, his successor J. F. Rutherford found himself forced to re-write many of the sect’s major doctrines. Much the same can be expected when JWs of a new generation inherit the positions currently occupied by Milton Henschel and his fellow elderly Governing Body members. When new leaders eventually take over, will they drop the ban on blood transfusions? Only time will tell. But, even if they do, it will make no difference for those who have already died, nor for those Witnesses continuing to die while the teaching remains in place.
Adapted by Jehovah’s Christian Witness, from the book “Worse Than Waco: Jehovah’s Witnesses Hide a Tragedy” copyright © 1993 by David A. Reed, P.O. Box 819, Assonet , MA 02702 . For a more detailed account of Watchtower history see the book “BLOOD ON THE ALTAR” by David A. Reed (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Publishers, 1996).

Cult Beliefs
They believe that Jesus did not rise from the dead. Russell says His body either dissolved into gases or is still preserved somewhere.

They believe that God is not triune (i.e., Father, Son, and Holy Ghost).

They believe that there is no such thing as a hell of everlasting torment. Hell is just the grave. The wicked are simply annihilated.

They believe that man has no spirit.

They believe the Holy Ghost is not a person of the Godhead, just a “life force” of God.

They exercise mind control over members.

They believe that man must work to be part of “God’s system of things”.

They believe that only the 144,000 mentioned in the book of Revelation will live in heaven with God.
They believe all dead people will have a second chance for eternal life at the millennium. If you do not prove worthiness at this time, you’ll be destroyed.

The believe the blood of Christ does not forgive sins, it gives us a “chance” to live again. They have NO assurance of salvation as Jehovah’s Witnesses who supposedly know the truth.

They believe Jesus is the archangel Michael – Jesus is a created being.

They believe Jesus is just an agent of God, nothing more.

They believe that Jesus’ second coming occurred invisibly in 1874. Russell’s successor, Rutherford, says this was confirmed by the creation of the first labor organization in 1874.

They believed Russell when he said that in 1914 the millennium would occur and righteousness would be restored to the earth. As 1914 approached, he, and his successor, changed the date to 1915, 1916, 1924, 1928, and on and on to the present day! When you ask a Jehovah’s Witness about this, they’ll give you the party line, “Well, the Watchtower is reaching different levels of enlightenment.”


Do you have relatives and friends who are part of this cult?  Pray for the Lord to replace this pack of lies with His truth: salvation through faith in the Lordship of His Only Begotten Son Jesus Christ.  (Acts 4:12, John 14:6)  For comprehensive information about this wicked cult, please go to the following website:       Blessings, Pastor Steve  <><


Much is said about “Deliverance” and “Healing” ministries.  As in the case with other doctrine, many charismatic churches and ministries fail with these teachings as well.  We pray for people entrapped in sin(s) and in need of healing in our church and ministry ALL THE TIME.  Countless people are healed, and guess what?  We do not take credit for it, and we give God all the glory.  The latest case in point is June Awad and her stage four cancer that has gone into remission.  To God be the glory.  In like fashion, I have observed countless people who were healed by the Lord after “praying without ceasing” (I Thessalonians 5:17) for the person, and nobody and no ministry received the credit – we simply thanked and glorified the Lord.  The pastor I surrendered to preach under, James Bill Grimes, said:  “Steven, I believe in faith healing but I do not believe in faith healers.”  Well put.  If the “Faith healers” had the abilities and powers that they claim, then they should literally live in the hospitals and heal those within.

Enjoy the following devotional by Dr. Henry Morris, Founder of the Institute For Creation Research, who likewise teaches on TRUE deliverance:

Days of Praise

True Deliverance
by Henry M. Morris, Ph.D. | Jan. 4, 2018

“And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.” (Matthew 6:13)
Certain Christian workers practice what they call a “deliverance ministry,” but true biblical deliverance is better defined in terms of today’s verse, which, of course, is the last petition in the prayer that Christ taught His disciples to pray. True deliverance is deliverance from evil, whatever form that evil might take, and preservation until God’s kingdom comes. Let us observe several scriptural accounts of true deliverance.
Note that the Greek word for deliverance has the connotation of “rescue,” and this is its first occurrence in the New Testament; that makes its usage here especially significant. That the Lord will indeed provide such deliverance, if we pray for it in sincerity, is affirmed in many testimonies and promises. Burdened with the problems of his old sin nature, Paul cried out, “O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death?” But then the answer comes: “I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord” (Romans 7:24-25). Even as his anticipated martyrdom was approaching, Paul could still testify, “The Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom” (2 Timothy 4:18).
Peter also assures us that “the Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished” (2 Peter 2:9). He is able to deliver His people from all the evils of this present evil world, to keep them and prepare them for the glory and the power of His coming kingdom, for He Himself is the Deliverance. “As it is written, There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer [same word], and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob” (Romans 11:26). HMM


I would suggest that the implications in this brief study are obvious.  We need faithful Christians to continue to pray for needs just as they have done for thousands of years.  We do NOT need self proclaimed “Faith Healers” and “Deliverance Ministries.”  James 5:16 “Confess your faults one to another, and pray one for another, that ye may be healed. The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much.”  Notice how God tells faithful people to pray, who desire not the limelight but to glorify the King of Kings.  A “Deliverance” or “Healing” ministry is not sought after by the Lord.  GOD IS THE GREAT PHYSICIAN – Glory Be To God And To God Alone.  Amen and amen.

All Because Of Him, Pastor Steve  <><

Kingdom Of The Cults

This is a new category, and will elucidate on the plethora of false teachings that pollute, add to, and take away from the truth of the holy scriptures.  There are numerous well known cults such as the Jehovah’s Witnesses, the Church Of Latter Day Saints (Mormons), and Christian Scientists to name a few.  Some of the common characteristics of cults are:  1)Key founder(s) who concoct their own false doctrine.  They are often charismatic and influential leader(s), sometimes claiming deity themselves.  2)A denial of the Triune Godhead (Trinity).  3)A convoluted understanding of Jesus Christ, often denying His deity and/or his manhood, and reducing our Lord’s Being to that of an angel, teacher or philosopher.  4)A denial of the holy scriptures, and/or adding to or taking away from the Word of God.

These cults and others will be touched upon.  If you are attempting to acquire information in order to reach people who are entrapped by one of the cults, there are innumerable books, pamphlets and charts readily available that expose their lies.  You can often locate information on them online, purchase them at your local Christian bookstore, or order them from the Christian Book Distributors (CBD).  The best comprehensive book available that exposes the lies of all of the major cults is Kingdom Of The Cults by Walter Martin.  Studying the cults will assist you in pulling a deceived soul out of the mire, and it is also beneficial because it will give you a clearer understanding of the truth!  Cashiers are often given counterfeit money to handle so they can more easily distinguish it from real money.

In His Service, Pastor Steve

Charismatic Chaos ~ Modern Day Apostles?

The very thought of the entitled subject, people considering themselves as apostles today, makes my skin crawl.  The audacity, hubris, conceit, and arrogance of anyone who would claim such an office is unparalleled.

May we examine how Biblical authority leaves NO OPTION for apostleship today:

Ephesians 2:19-20  King James Version (KJV)
19 Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God; 20 And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;

Note how the prophets and apostles are singled out as foundational.  The foundation has been laid, and the Lord is finished using these particular offices – both prophets and apostles.

In the following passage, Paul considers himself to be the last chosen apostle:

1 Corinthians 15:8  King James Version (KJV)
8 And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time.

There are three major Biblical qualifications for the original apostles:

1)They were chosen by Christ Himself.

2)They experienced the resurrected Christ firsthand.

3)They were able to display signs and wonders, as it pleased the Lord to work through them in such a way.


Consider the following on this subject from John MacArthur:

Not sure what to listen to?  Tune in to Grace Stream.
Tuesday, December 3, 2013

Marks of a True Apostle: Appointed by Jesus
by John MacArthur

Lots of people today claim to be apostles—to wield the same authority and power as the leaders of the New Testament church. To properly evaluate those claims, we’re looking at the biblical requirements for apostleship and measuring the credentials of these modern apostles against those of the men the Lord used to found and establish His church.
The Greek noun apostolos—from which we get the word apostle—is derived from the verb apostellō, which means “to send off on a commission to do something as one’s personal representative, with credentials furnished.” [1] We could translate apostolos as “envoy” or “ambassador,” someone who goes on a mission bearing credentials of the one who sent him.
An apostle in the New Testament was one sent to carry the gospel to sinners, and several individuals in the early church—both major and minor characters—were called apostles. Barnabas (Acts 14:14), Epaphroditus (Philippians 2:25), Andronicus and Junius (Romans 16:7) and James the Lord’s brother (Galatians 1:19) all bore the title, though they were not among the twelve chosen by our Lord. They are what 2 Corinthians 8:23 calls “messengers [apostles] of the churches.”
In that broad sense, believers today are able to accomplish apostolic work through evangelism and service to the church. But that’s not what many modern church leaders mean when they lay claim to the apostolic office. Instead, modern apostles are claiming authority, privilege, and power that belonged only to men specifically appointed by Jesus.
In its more restricted and common New Testament usage, apostle refers to “an apostle of Christ Jesus” (1 Timothy 1:1). Those apostles included the original twelve (with the deletion of Judas and the addition of Matthias after Judas’s defection) and Paul. In contrast to the apostles of the churches, these men were commissioned by Christ Himself. They were chosen by Him (cf. Luke 6:13; Acts 9:15) and learned the gospel from Him, not other men (cf. Galatians 1:11-12).
In Mark 3:14, we read that “He [Jesus] appointed twelve,” who are then named in verses 16-19. As we saw last time, the apostles were chosen by God long before they were ever born. But in life, they were hand selected by God incarnate. As Jesus said in John 15:16, “You did not choose Me but I chose you, and appointed you that you would go and bear fruit.”
That same mindset drove Paul to describe his own work as “the ministry which I received from the Lord Jesus” (Acts 20:24). He also echoed that sentiment in Romans 1:4-5, recognizing Christ as the source of his apostleship.
New Testament apostles were not only chosen by God, they were appointed by Jesus—called out from the crowd and set aside for specific work on behalf of the Savior.
It’s a wonder then that so many men and women today claim the authority and power of the apostolic office when they so clearly lack the necessary credentials, which accompanied that office in Scripture. As we further examine the marks of a true apostle, the more clearly we will see that their vain claims hold no water. That’s where we will pick it up next time.

(Adapted from The MacArthur New Testament Commentary: 1 Timothy)

[In addition to the above exegesis of the scriptures by John MacArthur on true apostleship, I would recommend his book “Strange Fire,” for anyone who desires to further research the heresy of so called modern day apostles, and the other scriptural errors of the charismatic movement.]


Another noteworthy truth, is that the Christ chosen apostles were responsible for writing the New Testament in its entirety!  (Just like the prophets wrote the Old Testament, both groups wrote under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit).  If people claimed modern day apostleship, one can easily see the Pandora’s Box that would open up, with our Bible becoming a “fluid document,” and books could be continually added by modern day “apostles.”

The early church leaders, i.e. successors of the apostles following the apostle John’s death in about 100 A.D., NEVER claimed apostleship, and always referred to the office as foundational to the origins of the church.  Irenaeus, Polycarp, Ignatius, Tertullian, and Eusebius referred to their apostolic predecessors as the bedrock of the church, yet did not claim the title themselves – and for good reason: once the church was established, the Lord laid the position to rest.  Now, nearly 2,000 years later, false prophets are claiming the position without the credentials to rightfully do so.  Ignatius (c. AD 35-115), in his epistle to the Magnesians, spoke in the past tense of the foundation-laying work of Peter and Paul.  Referring to the book of Acts, Ignatius wrote, “This was fulfilled in Syria; for the disciples were called Christians at Antioch, when Paul and Peter were laying the foundation of the Church.”  Irenaeus (c. 130-202) referred to the twelve apostles as “the twelve pillared foundation of the Church.”  Tertullian (c. 155-230) similarly explained that “after the time of the apostles” the only doctrine true Christians accepted was that which was “proclaimed in the churches of apostolic foundation.”  Lucius Lactantius (c. 240-320) in his Divine Institutes likewise referred to the past time in which apostolic foundations of the church were laid, stating that the apostles were dispersed through the provinces, laying the foundations of the Church everywhere, and doing many incredible miracles.  Examples could be multiplied, but the point is clear.  Many charismatics believe the foundation of the Church is still being laid, contrary to the Bible, contrary to the original apostles selected by Christ Himself, and contrary to the cited founding fathers of the Church.

  The Roman Catholic Church also errors in considering the pope to be in the line of the apostle Peter (apostolic succession), even though there was no pope for three hundred years following the apostles, and no genuine blood line to Peter.  The Roman Catholic Church is a grand mixture of scripture, tradition, and paganism.  You will not find popes, nuns, monks or cardinals anywhere in the Bible.

One final note.  Believers in modern day apostles often use the following scripture as their proof text:

Ephesians 4:11-12  King James Version (KJV)
11 And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers;
12 For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ:

Yes, the offices of prophets and apostles are mentioned, prophets were predominant up until the time of Christ, and apostles helped to establish the church, but the passage in no way infers that they would continue to this day.  Billy Graham would be one that misguided people would attempt to give the title to.  But Billy himself would refuse it and rightly identify himself as an evangelist!  God raised the dead through Peter and Paul, and performed countless other miracles through the apostles.  The apostles that Christ chose all experienced the risen Christ and were commissioned by Him!  Under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, they also wrote the New Testament.  That office is finished!  Amen and amen.

In His Service, Pastor Steve  <><